This documentation is work in progress - more information will be added as needed. It will finally replace the old documentation from the QEMU user manual. I think that a wiki is better in keeping evolving documentation like this one up to date.
While QEMU's main host platform is Linux, it is sometimes also useful to build or run it on members of the W32 / W64 family of operating systems (MS Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, ...) or on ReactOS (a W32 clone).
Running QEMU on the 64-bit variants is similar but needs additional documentation and currently some code patches. Support for W64 was added in QEMU 1.1.
Please note that less developers work on QEMU for W32 / W64 hosts, so it might be less stable (but I don't think it is).
Some system emulations on Linux use KVM, a special emulation mode which claims to reach nearly native speed. KVM is mainly used for x86 (32 and 64 bit) emulation on x86 hosts running Linux. There exists a highly experimental KVM for W32, but it is unknown whether it works with QEMU.
QEMU for W32 needs a fairly complete MinGW (or MinGW-w32) based development environment with tools (make, compiler, linker, ...) and some additional libraries.
Compilation of QEMU for W32 on non-W32 hosts (e.g. Linux hosts) is called cross compilation. Some Linux distributions (Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora and maybe others) already include packages needed for cross compilation, so the installation of these packages is the first step.
# Debian squeeze for W32: apt-get install gcc-mingw32 mingw32-binutils mingw32-runtime
# Debian (squeeze?) for W64: apt-get install gcc-mingw32 mingw32-binutils mingw-w64
SDL support is not included in standard MinGW, but packages for MinGW are available on the SDL homepage. POSIX thread support is not included in Debian or Ubuntu. Latest QEMU will need it, so you have to get it from MinGW (see links below).
Cross compilers usually are installed in /usr/bin with a prefix. For Debian, the cross gcc is called i586-mingw32msvc-gcc. This cross prefix must be passed to QEMU's configure.
# Debian cross configuration for W32: configure --cross-prefix=i586-mingw32msvc- [--extra-cflags=-mthreads]
Compiler option is needed for gcc versions which don't support TLS (thread local storage) without it (version 4.4 which is Debian's default needs it!).
Debian does not include a cross pkg-config, but it is required for cross builds. The following script can be saved as /usr/bin/i586-mingw32msvc-pkg-config and optionally be linked to /usr/bin/amd64-mingw32msvc-pkg-config.
#!/bin/sh basename=`basename $0` prefix=/usr/`echo $basename|sed s/-pkg-config//` PKG_CONFIG_LIBDIR=$prefix/lib/pkgconfig export PKG_CONFIG_LIBDIR pkg-config --define-variable=prefix=$prefix $@
These instructions were tested with the Linux Mint Debian Edition on 2012-06-02.
# Linux Mint for W32 and W64 (about 463 MiB): apt-get install mingw-w64
Add http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/windows:/mingw:/win32/openSUSE_11.4 (update with your release version) to the list of software repositories. Then install at least the following packets (most of them are pulled via dependencies):
mingw32-binutils mingw32-cpp mingw32-cross-binutils mingw32-cross-cpp mingw32-cross-gcc mingw32-cross-pkg-config mingw32-filesystem mingw32-gcc mingw32-glib2 mingw32-glib2-devel mingw32-glib2-lang mingw32-headers mingw32-libgcc mingw32-libgmp mingw32-libintl mingw32-libintl-devel mingw32-libmpc mingw32-libmpfr mingw32-libSDL mingw32-libSDL-devel mingw32-libssp mingw32-runtime mingw32-zlib mingw32-zlib-devel
This toolchain does not include libiberty.a in its binutils package, but it also does not need to. If building against a QEMU version that still pulls this in unconditionally, simply drop the
-liberty from configure.
For W64 use the corresponding win64 repository and mingw64- packages.
Fedora supports both W64 and W32 cross builds. The following instructions were tested on F17:
# Fedora for W32 cross build: yum install mingw32-pixman yum install mingw32-glib2 yum install mingw32-gmp yum install mingw32-SDL yum install mingw32-pkg-config
# Fedora for W64 cross build: yum install mingw64-pixman yum install mingw64-glib2 yum install mingw64-gmp yum install mingw64-SDL yum install mingw64-pkg-config
Cross compilers usually are installed in /usr/bin with a prefix. This cross prefix must be passed to QEMU's configure. The prefix depends on your target platform.
For Fedora W64 builds, the cross gcc is called x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc.
# Fedora cross configuration for W64: ./configure --cross-prefix=x86_64-w64-mingw32-
For Fedora W32 builds, it depends on Fedora version. For Fedora 17, the cross gcc is called i686-w32-mingw32-gcc.
# Fedora 17 cross configuration for W32: ./configure --cross-prefix=i686-w32-mingw32-
For Fedora 18 and later, the cross gcc is called i686-w64-mingw32-gcc.
# Fedora 18 and later cross configuration for W32: ./configure --cross-prefix=i686-w64-mingw32-
Note that "-mingw32-" (and for Fedora 18 and later, w64) appears in prefix for both W32 and W64 builds.
Get and install MinGW. In addition, some more packages are needed:
Get the QEMU source code (git or tarball), then run configure and make.
QEMU for W64 needs a fairly complete MinGW-w64 based development environment with tools (make, compiler, linker, ...) and some additional libraries.
Compilation of QEMU for W64 on non-W64 hosts (e.g. Linux hosts) is called cross compilation. Some Linux distributions (Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora and maybe others) already include packages needed for cross compilation, so the installation of these packages is the first step.
# Debian cross configuration for W64: configure --cross-prefix=amd64-mingw32msvc-
# Fedora cross configuration for W32: ./configure --cross-prefix=i686-w64-mingw32-
Installation is easy with the experimental installers from qemu.weilnetz.de.
User mode emulation is unsupported: it only works on BSD, Darwin and Linux.
All QEMU system emulation should be working (that simply means I don't know of emulations which don't work, and those which I tried, namely x86 and mips, work well).
QEMU is based on MinGW, so some commonly used UNIX device names like /dev/null or /dev/zero can be used. W32 device names also work, especially names like //./PhysicalDrive0 for the first hard disk of the host (this name must be used with extreme care or you will likely crash your system).
Text which is normally printed by QEMU to the console output channels (normally known as standard output = stdout and standard error output = stderr) might be written to files called stdout.txt and stderr.txt. If you want to see QEMU's help messages or if it does not work as expected, you should look for these files in the directory where your exe file is installed.